Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 112(10) October 2017
The role of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations: potential Leishmania spp. vectors in the Brazilian savanna
1Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Medicina, Área de Patologia, Laboratório de Parasitologia Médica e Biologia de Vetores, Brasília, DF, Brasil
2Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Tocantins, Coordenação de Ciências Matemáticas e Naturais, Palmas, TO, Brasil
3Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Medicina, Área de Patologia, Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Biociências, Brasília, DF, Brasil
4Universidade de Brasília, Ceilândia, DF, Brasil
5Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Patologia Básica, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
BACKGROUND Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence.
OBJECTIVE To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs) in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids.
METHODS Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season) and November (rainy season) in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing.
FINDINGS A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp.) and 578 (22 spp.) were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens) identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri.
MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil.