Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, VOLUME 115 | FEBRUARY 2020
Phylogenetics applied to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): from the cross-species transmissions to the contact network inferences [ACCEPTED ARTICLES / PRELIMINARY VERSION]
1Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador BA, Brasil
2Departamento de Biologia. Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alegre ES, Brasil
3Laboratório de AIDS e Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil
Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the geographic spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important research area to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalized epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritized in different regions.