Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, VOLUME 115 | JUNE 2020
Original Article

The impact of imported malaria by gold miners in Roraima: characterizing the spatial dynamics of autochthonous and imported malaria in an urban region of Boa Vista

Jaime Louzada1, Nathália Coelho Vargas de Almeida2, Joao Luiz Pereira de Araujo3, Júlio Silva4, Thiago M Carvalho1,Ananias A Escalante5, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira6,+

1Universidade Federal de Roraima, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil
2Secretaria de Saúde de Roraima, Coordenação Geral de Vigilância em Saúde, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil
3Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil
4Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
5Temple University, Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America
6Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760200043
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BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases.
OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission.
METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis.
FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana.
MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.

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Financial support: PAEF (IOC-023-FIO-18-2-47 and CAPES - Finance Code 001.
JOF is the recipient of a Research Productivity Fellowship from the CNPq.
+ Corresponding author:
Received 27 January 2020
Accepted 16 June 2020

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