Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, VOLUME 115 | JUNE 2020
Original Article

The impact of imported malaria by gold miners in Roraima: characterizing the spatial dynamics of autochthonous and imported malaria in an urban region of Boa Vista

Jaime Louzada1, Nathália Coelho Vargas de Almeida2, Joao Luiz Pereira de Araujo3, Júlio Silva4, Thiago M Carvalho1,Ananias A Escalante5, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira6,+

1Universidade Federal de Roraima, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil
2Secretaria de Saúde de Roraima, Coordenação Geral de Vigilância em Saúde, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil
3Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil
4Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
5Temple University, Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America
6Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760200043
75 views 25 downloads
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases.
OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission.
METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis.
FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana.
MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.

REFERENCES
01. WHO - World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2019. Geneva: WHO; 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/malaria/ publications/world_malaria_report/en/.
02. Espinoza JL. Malaria resurgence in the Americas: an underestimated threat. Pathogens. 2019; 8(1): 11.
03. Grillet ME, Hernandez-Villena JV, Llewellyn MS, Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Tami A, Vincenti-Gonzalez MF, et al. Venezuela’s humanitarian crisis, resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and implications for spillover in the region. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019; 19(5): e149-e61.
04. Daniels JP. Increasing malaria in Venezuela threatens regional progress. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018; 18(3): 257.
05. Unicef. Crise migratória venezuelana no Brasil. 2019. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/brazil/crise-migratoria-venezuelana- no-brasil.
06. Wangdi K, Gatton ML, Kelly GC, Clements AC. Cross-border malaria: a major obstacle for malaria elimination. Adv Parasitol. 2015; 89: 79-107.
07. MS - Ministério da Saúde. Notificação de casos. 2020. Available from: htpp//portalweb04.saude.gov.br/Sivep_malaria/.
08. Póvoa MM, de Souza RTL, Lacerda RNL, Rosa ES, Galiza D, de Souza JR, et al. The importance of Anopheles albitarsis E and An. darlingi in human malaria transmission in Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006; 101(2): 163-8.
09. Rosa-Freitas MG, Tsouris P, Peterson AT, Honorio NA, de Barros FSM, de Aguiar DB, et al. An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil. The importance of landscape in malaria biology. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007; 102(3): 349-57.
10. SVS/MS - Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde/Ministério da Saúde. Padronização dos métodos utilizados em pesquisa larvária de Anopheles na rotina dos laboratórios de entomologia. Nota Técnica no. 012-CGPNCM/DIGES/SVS/MS. Registro Número: 25000. 2011.
11. Consoli RAGB, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R. Principais mosquitos de importância sanitária no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz; 1994. 228 pp.
12. Forattini OP. Culicidologia médica. Vol. 2: Identificação, Biologia, Epidemiologia. São Paulo: Edusp; 2002.
13. Durbin J. Boundary-crossing probabilities for the Brownian motion and Poisson processes and techniques for computing the power of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. J Appl Probab. 1971; 8(3): 431-53.
14. Câmara G, Carvalho MS, Cruz OG, Correia V. Análise espacial de áreas. In: Druck S, Carvalho MS, Câmara G, Monteiro AMV, editores. Análise espacial de dados geográficos. Planaltina: Embrapa; 2004.
15. Lewis PAW. Some results on tests for Poisson processes. Biometrika. 1965; 52(1-2): 67-77.
16. Guerra CA, Reiner Jr RC, Perkins TA, Lindsay SW, Midega JT, Brady OJ, et al. A global assembly of adult female mosquito markrelease- recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens. Parasit Vectors. 2014; 7: 276.
17. Charlwood JD, Alecrim WA. Capture-recapture studies with the South American malaria vector Anopheles darlingi, Root. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989; 83(6): 569-76.
18. Cotter C, Sturrock HJ, Hsiang MS, Liu J, Phillips AA, Hwang J, et al. The changing epidemiology of malaria elimination: new strategies for new challenges. Lancet. 2013; 382(9895): 900-11.
19. Douine M, Mosnier E, Le Hingrat Q, Charpentier C, Corlin F, Hureau L, et al. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health. BMC Public Health. 2017; 18: 23.
20. Fellet J. Roraima exporta 194 kg de ouro à Índia sem ter nenhuma mina operando legalmente. BBC News Brasil. São Paulo, 12 de junho de 2019.
21. Douine M, Musset L, Corlin F, Pelleau S, Pasquier J, Mutricy L, et al. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in illegal gold miners in French Guiana in 2015: a hidden but critical malaria reservoir. Malar J. 2016; 15: 315.
22. RAdiSG - Rede Amazônica de Informação Socioambiental Georeferenciada RAdISG. Available from: https://www.amazoniasocioambiental. org/pt-br/.
23. Castellanos A, Chaparro-Narváez P, Morales-Plaza CD, Alzate A, Padilla J, Arévalo M, et al. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2016; 111(1): 59-66.
24. Musset L, Pelleau S, Girod R, Ardillon V, Carvalho L, Dusfour I, et al. Malaria on the Guiana Shield: a review of the situation in French Guiana. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2014; 109(5): 525-33.
25. Xu C, Wei QK, Li J, Xiao T, Yin K, Zhao CL, et al. Characteristics of imported malaria and species of Plasmodium involved in Shandong province, China (2012-2014). Korean J Parasitol. 2016; 54(4): 407-14.
26. Sriwichai P, Karl S, Samung Y, Kiattibutr K, Sirichaisinthop J, Mueller I, et al. Imported Plasmodium falciparum and locally transmitted Plasmodium vivax: cross-border malaria transmission scenario in northwestern Thailand. Malar J. 2017; 16(1): 258.
27. Chenet SM, Akinyi Okoth S, Huber CS, Chandrabose J, Lucchi NW, Talundzic E, et al. Independent emergence of the Plasmodium falciparum Kelch propeller domain mutant allele C580Y in Guyana. J Infect Dis. 2016; 213(9): 1472-5.
28. Ferreira MU, Castro MC. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil. Malar J. 2016; 15(1): 284.
29. Recht J, Siqueira AM, Monteiro WM, Herrera SM, Herrera S, Lacerda MVG. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination. Malar J. 2017; 16(1): 273.

Financial support: PAEF (IOC-023-FIO-18-2-47 and CAPES - Finance Code 001.
JOF is the recipient of a Research Productivity Fellowship from the CNPq.
+ Corresponding author: lila@ioc.fiocruz.br
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6063-465X
Received 27 January 2020
Accepted 16 June 2020

Our Location

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Av. Brasil 4365, Castelo Mourisco 
sala 201, Manguinhos, 21040-900 
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Tel.: +55-21-2562-1222

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Support Program

ioc

fiocruz governo
faperj cnpq capes